Thirty-five years ago (or so), I collected a few magazines from various eras with the idea of collaging pictures by decade—ten decades, ten collages… the story of the Twentieth Century.

Recently, as I was going through the seemingly endless process of sorting out and throwing away, I found those magazines. It turns out that I had in fact cut out a number of pictures for the project. Not to let the idea and project go to waste completely, I put together the collage below (7’ by 3 ½’). The text lists key scientific discoveries, inventions, and accomplishments by year, 1900 to 2000.

My sources for those discoveries/developments are Buckminster Fuller’s Critical Path and Chat GBT. I don’t think I’ve ever read a book that made me aware of so much unused brain space as did Fuller’s Critical Path. And Chat GBT is remarkable, to say the least.

(The images that follow, except for the collage, were generated using Microsoft CoPilot/Designer.)

1900: Quantum Theory – Planck / Discovery of radon

1901: Discovery of Radioactivity / Transatlantic radio telegraph / Discovery of yellow fever transmission

1902: The Wright Brothers’ First Powered Flight / Photos by wire

AI image — “first flight”

1903: The Discovery of the Electron / Motor taxis in London

1904: Rutherford’s Nuclear Model / Reinforced concrete

1905: Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity / Power plant at Niagara

1906: Lee De Forest’s Audion Tube / Crystal detector (radio)

1907: Mendelian Genetics / Ford Model T – Assembly-line production

AI image — “assembly line”

1908: Rutherford’s Transmutation of Elements / Electron / East and Hudson River railroad tubes

1909: Discovery of the North Pole

1910: Development of Superconductivity / Roller bearings

1911: Bohr’s Model of the Atom / South Pole discovered / Hydroplane / X-ray study of metals

1912: Discovery of Cosmic Rays / Vitamins / Cellophane / Atomic numbers

1913: Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment / Tungsten-filament lamp / Atom model

1914: Development of the Bragg Equation / Military tank / Panama Canal / World War begun

1915: Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity / 1st chlorine gas attack in World War I

AI image — “General Theory of Relativity”

1916: Discovery of the First Exoplanet / Helicopter / Development of gas mask / Stainless steel

1917: Discovery of the First Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom / Vitamin B / Submarine detector

1918: Spanish Flu Pandemic / Examination by X-ray of brain / Toaster / Sonar

1919: Confirmation of General Relativity / First wireless phone conversation across Atlantic

AI image — “First TransAtlantic phone call”

1920: Development of the Wilson Cloud Chamber / Neutron discovered / Commercial radio broadcast of voice

1921: The Discovery of Insulin / Rubber plated on metal

1922: Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background / Air conditioning / Radar / Vitamin D

1923: Discovery of Vitamin C / Hubble discovers another galaxy / Bulldozer

1924: Discovery of Hubble’s Law / First intercity bus lines / Wave mechanics – De Broglie

1925: Schrodinger’s Wave Equation / First commercial airline on regular schedule / Methanol

1926: Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle / Talking movies / Conditioned reflexes – Pavlov

1927: Formation of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) / Lindberg across the Atlantic / Photoelectric cell

1928: Discovery of Penicillin / Teletype

1929: Discovery of the Expanding Universe / Rocket engine successful – Goddard

1930: Development of Quantum Mechanics / Cyclotron (atom smasher) / First air-conditioned passenger train

1931: Discovery of Neutrons / Empire State Building completed / Around the world airplane flight / Gogel’s Proof

AI image — “Completion of Empire State Building”

1932: Discovery of the Positron / All-metal passenger airplanes / Neutron discovered

1933: Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity / FM broadcasting

1934: Discovery of Cosmic Rays as High-Energy Particles / High intensity mercury arc lamp

1935: Discovery of the Neutrino / Cortisone / Public TV in England

1936: Discovery of Nuclear Fission / Micrometer / Rust cotton picker

1937: Development of the Cyclotron / Jet engine, England / nylon produced

1938: Discovery of Nuclear Isomerism / Ballpoint pen

1939: Discovery of Nuclear Reactivity of Uranium-235 / DDT / Electron microscope / Synthetic rubber

1940: Development of the Magnetron / Radio map of Milky Way / Meningitis cure

AI image — “Discovering radio map of Milky Way”

1941: Development of the First Computer / Dacron

1942: First Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction / Magnetic tape / V-2 rocket

1943: Discovery of the Coelacanth / LSD – Hoffman

1944: Discovery of DNA Structure / 1st jet airplane fighter

1945: Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II / Streptomycin developed

1946: Invention of the First Electronic Computer / Radio-controlled rocket missile

1947: Invention of the Transistor / Geodesic dome – B. Fuller / World’s largest reflector telescope – Mt. Palomar / Commercial TV broadcasting

1948: Discovery of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis / Holograph / Long-playing record

1949: Development of the COBOL Programming Language / USSR explodes A-bomb / Neomycin

1950: Development of the First Vaccine for Polio / Frost-free refrigerator, dishwasher, self-cleaning oven

1951: Discovery of the DNA Double Helix

AI image — “Discovering structure of DNA”

1952: Discovery of the First Microwave Background Radiation / Hydrogen bomb explosion / Radioisotopes into scientific, medical, industrial use

1953: Discovery of the Structure of DNA / Cosmic-ray observatory in Alaska

1954: Development of the First Nuclear Power Plant / Nautilus, 1st atomic-powered submarine

1955: Development of the First Polio Vaccine / Discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter / Open heart surgery

1956: Discovery of the Antiproton / Neutrino first detected / 1st transatlantic telephone cable

1957: Launch of Sputnik 1 – USSR / 1st Civilian nuclear-power station

1958: Establishment of NASA / US satellite orbits Earth / Van Allen radiation belts discovered

1959: Discovery of Quasars / St. Lawrence Seaway opens mid-America to ocean traffic

1960: Discovery of the Laser / Birth control pills / Pacemaker for human heart / 1st weather satellite

1961: Human Spaceflight — Gagarin orbits Earth as first human spaceman — USSR

1962: Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation / Telstar, half-ton communication-relay satellite / Four ice ages established from soil core diggings

1963: Development of the First Handheld Calculator / Discovery of anti-xi-zeno, fundamental atomic particle of antimatter

1964: Discovery of Quarks / Close-up photos of Moon’s surface / Divers live in underwater Sealab for nine days

1965: Confirmation of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation / First space walks / 1st use of satellites in TV transmission

1966: Discovery of Pulsars / Luna 9 instrument package makes soft landing on Moon

1967: Development of the First Successful Heart Transplant / Docking of two unmanned spacecraft

1968: Discovery of the T-Quark / First men orbit Moon / Pulsars detected / Integrated circuits

AI image — “Integrated circuits”

1969: Apollo 11 Moon Landing / Single gene isolated / Fiber optics / Microwaves

1970: Development of the First Pocket Calculator / Boeing 747 jumbo jet / Completion of gene synthesis

AI image — “hand-held calculators”

1971: Development of the Internet’s Precursor, ARPANET / First synthesis of hormone responsible for human growth

1972: Development of the First Video Game / Computer-programmed subway train

1973: Development of Recombinant DNA Technology

1974: Discovery of the J/Psi Particle / Orbiting space station, astronauts spend 85 days aboard / “Close-in” pictures of Venus, Mercury and Jupiter

1975: Development of Personal Computers / Particles with “charm” discovered / Satellite educational TV to 2400 villages in India

1976: Discovery of the W and Z Bosons / Mars unmanned landing

1977: Voyager 1 and 2 Launch / Gene-splitting technique to attack human disease

1978: Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy / World’s first test tube baby

1979: Discovery of Moon’s volcanic activity /Discovery of Charon / The First Gene Cloning

1980: Smallpox eradication / Development of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

1981: Identification of HIV / The First Space Shuttle Flight (STS-1) / Discovery of the Antigen Receptor on T Cells

AI image — “space shuttle”

1982: Development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) / Discovery of the Fullerene (buckminsterfullerene)

1983: Discovery of HIV Virus / Discovery of W and Z Bosons / Discovery of location of Alzheimer’s Disease Gene

1984: Discovery of first Exoplanet / Development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

1985: Discovery of Ozone Hole / Discovery of the Titanic Shipwreck / Discovery of the Supernova 1987A

1986: Challenger Space Shuttle disaster / Discovery of High-Temperature Superconductivity

1987: First superconducting material / Loma Prieta Earthquake Prediction

1988: Discovery of oldest fossils indicating that life began on Earth 3.5 billion years ago / Discovery of the First Exoplanets

1989: Hubble Space Telescope launched / Discovery of the Oldest Known Human Ancestor (4.4 million)

1990: World Wide Web invention / First Successful Gene Therapy Trial / Discovery of the Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

AI image — “World Wide Web”

1991: First exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star / Cometary Impact Hypothesis for the extinction of dinosaurs

1992: First confirmed Exoplanet around a Pulsar / Discovery of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy (support for Big Bang Theory)

1993: Discovery of Machu Picchu’s “Sister City” / Discovery of the Top Quark (1 of 6 fundamental particles of the Standard Model of particle physics)

1994: Discovery of first hot Jupiter Exoplanet / Identification of the BRCA1 Gene / Development of the First Quantum Computer Algorithm

1995: Cloning of Dolly the Sheep / Identification of the BRCA2 Gene

1996: Confirmation of Exoplanet orbiting Sun-like star / Discovery of Evidence for Ancient Life on Mars (still debated)

1997: Mars Pathfinder Mission / Discovery of the Hale-Bopp Comet

1998: Discovery of Accelerating Universe / Discovery of Water on the Moon / Creation of the First Atom of Bose-Einstein Condensate (opened study of quantum phenomena)

1999: Theoretical Development of Graphene / Confirmation of Dark Matter / Development of Quantum Dots (potential to revolutionize technology in the future)

2000: Completion of Human Genome Project / Confirmation of Liquid Water on Mars / Discovery of a New Human Species, Homo floresiensis (Hobbits)

AI image — “Human Genome Project”